The best trout anglers know how read a river like a book. Analyzing every wave, bend, and eddy in the current with thoughtful recognition of those areas sought by trout. Every cast is an anticipation of a strike from the trout they are confident lies in wait in that specific spot.
With a little understanding of trout behavior and stream habitat characteristics, you can help to optimize your efficiency in casting to where trout are most likely to be holding and ready to strike.
How Do You Read River Water For Trout Fishing?
Trout can be confusing and elusive creature. Other times, they can be a very predictable creature. While the old notion “think like a fish” is a bit of a cliche, this is the phrase I approach most of my fishing and hunting adventures with. Fish and animals are not present in equal abundance across the total available habitat. Instead, fish and animals tend to be found in “pockets” of prime habitat. Another way to think of it is something along the lines of “75% of the trout use 25% of the water”.
To get better at fishing for trout, you need to know where to find trout. To first do this, you should have a good understanding of their behavior. Go through and analyze a trout’s needs and know how to read a river.
Start By Thinking Like a Trout
A trout needs to conserve as much energy in swift current and be in a place where they can eat lots of bugs. So let’s think about where a trout might be hanging out. They will be looking for somewhere they don’t have to work as hard against the current. Somewhere where they may feel safe, or have a place to retreat to, or a prime spot to catch food moving downstream.
Maybe it is a hot day and the sun is shining bright. The trout are probably hot too and will be seeking shade or cooler waters down deep. What about a cool cloudy morning? Maybe trout will be more apt to come out into the exposed shallows.
It’s all about trying to think like a trout and what they might be doing. You surely won’t always be right, but it gets you in a mindset to become a better angler.
River Habitat Types
If you want to know how to read a trout stream, let’s first start with breaking down a stream or river into subsections. There is a simple classification that most biologists and stream ecologists use to identify different types of habitat present on flowing water. Being able to identify and classify these habitat types will be the first key in how to find trout in streams or rivers.
A riffle is a generally shallow section of flowing water characterized by a rippled surface as it flows over submerged rocks. Small waves and eddies are characteristic of riffles, through rarely does the surface water break or crash. Think of it as a “gurgling” or “babbling” stream.
Generally, trout do not spend a lot of time in riffle habitat in smaller streams. However, in larger and deeper river systems, riffle habitat can actually be great to target things like rainbow trout or steelhead. They will generally hold within this habitat behind a current break or in an eddy and watch for food drifting by. An excellent setup for nymphing.
A run is somewhat similar to a riffle. The big difference being that a run is generally deeper and has less of a ripply or wavy surface. Being deeper, the water may move slightly slower and the surface will have a much smoother appearance. Run habitat is a great place to target many trout species. Often times, trout will wait in ambush behind a boulder near the very upstream end of a run near a constriction point in the river. This allows them to target a high amount of food in a small area. Staying behind a boulder or current break allows them to conserve energy.
Fish like big brown trout also favor the deep sheltered portions of runs. Big predatory brown trout often lay on the bottom near some sort of cover. They prefer the slower portions of the stream and may be found near the tail end of a long run where they can see small fish upstream into the run habitat.
Pool habitat is a little more self-explanatory than some of the other habitat types. As it sounds, pools are areas of river or stream where the water has slowed significantly and formed a round or oblong sort of “pool”. The deep and slow water in these habitats are often favored by trout. Particularly in smaller streams that have otherwise a lot of shallow water habitat.
Pool habitat often has lots of structure and places for fish to hide. Fish will wait in pools for food to float down through constrictions of the river near the upstream end of the pool. Fish in pools can be easily spooked so approach them in small streams with caution and stealth. If I’m fishing a smaller stream or creek, I rarely pass up at least a cast or two into every pool.
A cascade is a section of flowing water that is very rapid and turbulent over a steep channel bottom. Nearly all of the water surface is broken whitewater that experiences multiple short plunges and drops. Think of it as a “roaring” section of river. While not necessarily the ideal trout habitat, you can often find trout holding in the small pockets of smooth water amidst otherwise turbulent cascades. Utilizing boulders and rocks as breaks from the swift current, the trout wait for disoriented prey items to drift by. Cascades can be difficult to fish precisely due to the water moving so fast. These are more favored by trout like rainbows and brooks over something like a brown trout.
How to Read a River or Stream for Trout
Now that we have broken flowing water systems down into four main habitat types (riffle, run, pool, cascade) lets get deeper into the weeds to really understand where to find trout. Within these types of habitat types, there are smaller and more precise features you will want to look for to find trout in a river.
Accumulations of wood such as log jams or root wads are a great spot for trout to wait in ambush. They serve as current breaks and great shelter for fish to hide amongst and wait to ambush food. Log jams in pool habitat are a great spot to target. Woody debris is particularly favored habitat for larger predatory fish such as big adult brown trout.
Trout like to hide. Undercut banks are overhanging shorelines created from the current lapping away at the shores edge. They make ideal spots for trout to hide. The “roof” of the undercut is generally a vegetated section of soil held together by interlacing plant roots. The underwater cavity carved out underneath gives trout a concealed and cool spot to hide from predators and wait for prey. Because undercuts are created by current flowing into them, they are also a spot where food naturally flows into. Trout sit in hiding and wait for the food to come to them. It is pretty easy to drift a fly or lure into/past an undercut and lure a trout from hiding. Never pass an undercut bank without offering a ast or two.
~Boulders & Current Breaks~
Swimming against the current in a stream 24/7 is hard work. Trout don’t want to work harder than they have to and try their best to conserve valuable energy. A great way for trout to accomplish this is by staying in “slack-water” behind a an object that breaks the force of the current. Trout will often hang in the eddy on the downstream side of a large boulder or jetty. Staying just close enough to the current which is carrying their food downstream. Cast upstream of these current break features and drift your lure past them.
As mentioned a few times before, trout will almost always hang out near a spot where there is a better chance of catching a meal. In streams and rivers, the flowing water experiences wide shallow areas where is spreads out across the channel and then may experience a funneling effect in another area where the water is constricted through a narrow channel. These “constriction points” are also areas where most of the bugs and food for trout funnel into in a higher density. Trout know this and target areas just downstream of these points where they have a better chance at finding a meal.
If you are fishing a stream or river broken up by lakes or ponds, the water coming into the lake or pond is a highway for trout food. Trout in the lake or pond stay near the stream inlet or outlet to take advantage of this funneling effect.
Deeper water is often favored by trout, particularly in smaller streams, due to the cover it provides and the cooler temperatures found below. Spots of deeper water in a flowing stream often also provide breaks from the current for trout. Generally the larger trout will gravitate towards some sort of cover in deeper sections of water. If I am fishing for big brown trout, I never pass up a cast into a particularly deep looking pool or run. Fishing lures or flies slowly along the bottom can often entice a strike from an otherwise disinterested big brown trout. Remember fish don’t want to work too hard for their meal.
Trout do not like to feel exposed. While sometimes you can see trout treading water out in the middle of a sunny open riffle, this is not all that common. They only do this when they feel very comfortable and at home .Generally, trout will gravitate towards to concealment that shade provides. The shade offers cover and makes them more difficult to spot for avian or human predators. On hot summer days, it is a slightly cooler spot for trout to hang out.
“Pocket Water” can refer to a whole bunch of different scenarios. Generally though, think of it as a little calm “pocket” amidst an otherwise turbulent or rough section of water. Cascade and turbulent runs or riffles are usually the locations of pocket water. Amidst long cascades and sections of swift tumbling water, you can often find little breaks behind boulders or in side eddies. Oftentimes, you can catch trout hanging out in these small sections of habitat as they wait for a quick grab of prety coming down stream. The hard part is accurately landing your fly or lure into the pocket or just upstream of the pocket and presenting it to the trout just right.
With a little knowledge of stream characteristics and trout preferences, you are one step closer to becoming an efficient and precise trout angler. Take this knowledge to the water and put it to the test.
The real expertise and finesse to reading trout water comes from applying this knowledge and continually learning through countless hours spent on the water. Pretty soon, you will be able to predict (with fairly good success) just where the trout are hanging out.
Instead of casting aimlessly into the water in front of you, learn and practice to read the habitat and fish for trout with intent.